The #DebateMatters Project

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The #DebateMatters Project collects and curates content and research demonstrating the value of debate. 
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Value of Debate Bibliography*

"Academic Literature." Atlanta Urban Debate League. August 01, 2016.

AFA Policy Debate Caucus. "Report of the working committee from the Quail Roost Conference on assessment of professional activities of directors of debate." The Forensic of Pi Kappa Delta 79 (1993): 19-25.

Albert, Lawrence S. "Forensics as Scholarly Activity from the Administrative Perspective." (1991).

Allen, Mike, Sandra Berkowitz, and A. Louden. "A study comparing the impact of communication classes and competitive forensic experience on critical thinking improvement." The Forensic of Pi Kappa Delta 80 (1995): 1-8.

Allen, Mike, Sandra Berkowitz, Steve Hunt, and Allan Louden. "A meta‐analysis of the impact of forensics and communication education on critical thinking." Communication Education 48, no. 1 (1999): 18-30.

Allen, Mike, Sandra Berkowitz, Steve Hunt, and Allan Louden. "Measuring the Impact of Forensics and Communication Education on Critical Thinking: A Meta-Analytic Summary." (1997). PDF:

Andersen, Kenneth E. "A critical review of the behavioral research in argumentation and forensics." Argumentation and Advocacy 10, no. 3 (1974): 147-155.

Anderson, Susannah, and Briana Muzek. Participating in a policy debate program and academic achievement among at-risk adolescents in an urban public school district: 1997–2007. PDF. doi:10.1016/ j.adolescence.2012.04.005: Journal of Adolescence, 2012.

Anderson, Susannah, and Briana Muzek. Positive Youth Development and Participation in an Urban Debate League: Results from Chicago Public Schools, 1997-2007. DOI: 10.7709/jnegroeducation.84.3.0362: The Journal of Negro Education, Summer 2015.

Antilla, Julie K. From Sí Se Puede to Échale Ganas: Transforming the Life Narrative of Migrant Students through Debate Tournaments. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2013.

Antilla-Garza, Julie, and Jenny Cook-Gumperz. "Debating the world–Choosing the word: High school debates as academic discourse preparation for bilingual students." Linguistics and Education 31 (2015): 276-285.

Arbenz, C., and S. Beltran. "Empowering Latinas Through Debate: An Analysis of Success at SCUDL Tournaments of Latina Debaters." Western States Communication Association’s 2001 Panel on Debate Outreach, Coeur D’Alene, Idaho (2001).

Asonye, Chime. " Illinois Policy Debate a Review and Justification." The elephant in the room. April 25, 2017.

Bailey, Larry. "The Benefits of Debate." Homeschool World. 2003.

Barber, Iowaka. "Agreeing to Disagree." High School Debate Program. Summer 1998.

Barfield, Kenny Dale. "A study of the relationship between active participation in interscholastic debating and the development of critical thinking skills with implications for school administrators and instructional leaders." (1990): 2714-2714.

Bauschard, Stefan, and P. Anand Rao. "The Value of Speech and Debate in the Middle School Years." ROSTRUM (2015): 61.

Bartanen, Kristine. "Developing student voices in academic debate through a feminist perspective of learning, knowing and arguing." Contemporary Argumentation & Debate 16 (1995): 1-13.

Bartanen, Michael D. “The educational benefits of forensics.” Teaching and directing forensics. Gorsuch Scarisbrick, Publishers, 1994. 3-5.

Bellon, Joe. "A research-based justification for debate across the curriculum." Argumentation and Advocacy 36, no. 3 (2000): 161-175. &

Benefits of Debate." American Debate League. 2017.

Benefits of Debate." War Eagles Debate. Accessed February 03, 2018.

Benefits of Debating." QatarDebate. 2018.

Bennett, William H. "The Role of Debate in Speech Communication." Speech Teacher 21, no. 4 (1972): 281-88.

Billman, J. "They don’t have to win nationals: Cognitive, professional, and interpersonal benefits of forensics to student participants." Rostrum 82 (2008): 97-99.

Billman, J., and H. Christensen. "Short survey responses from NFL alumni." Unpublished raw data (2008).

Bradley, Bert E. “Debate – A Practical Training for Gifted Students.” Speech Teacher 7 (1959): 134-38.

Branham, Robert James. Debate and critical analysis: The harmony of conflict. Routledge, 2013.

Brigance, W. N. "The Debate as Training for Citizenship." Counterpoint: Debates about Debate (1968): 17-22.

Carr, J. E. "A better investment not found on Wall Street." Rostrum 76, no. 5 (2002): 25-26.

Center, D. "Debate and the job market." Debate Issues 15 (1982): 4-6.

Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Inner-city schools suffer when ‘debaters’ go silent." USA Today (2008): 11A.

Colbert, Kent. "Enhancing critical thinking ability through academic debate." Contemporary Argumentation & Debate 16 (1995): 52-72.

Colbert, Kent. "Enhancing critical thinking ability through academic debate." Perspectives in controversy: Selected essays from Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, K. Broda-Bahm, ed. New York, NY: International Debate Education Association (2002): 71-100.,+K.+(2002).+Enhancing+critical+thinking+ability+through+academic+debate.+Perspectives+in+Controversy:+Selected+Essays+from+Contemporary+Argumentation+and+Debate+(K.+Broda-Bahm,+Ed.).+New+York,+NY:+The+International+Debate+Education+Association+Pres&ots=sa2SemFf_q&sig=p6xLQCj3vfcy2MFa_QLcO68Ecws#v=onepage&q&f=false

Colbert, Kent R. "The Effects of CEDA and NDT Debate Training on Critical Thinking Ability." Journal of the American Forensic Association 23, no. 4 (1987): 194-201.

Colbert, Kent, and Thompson Biggers. "Why Should We Support Debate?" Journal of the American Forensic Association 21, no. 4 (1985): 237-40.

Collier, L. "Argument for success: A study of academic debate in urban high schools of Chicago, Kansas City, New York, St." In Louis and Seattle. Chicago, IL: National Communication Association Convention Conference Proceedings. (2004).

Cox, E. S., and W. C. Adams. "Valuing of tournament debate: Factors from practitioners and administrators." The Forensic of Pi Kappa Delta 80 (1995): 7-12.

Crawford, Rob. "In defense of competitive speech." Rostrum19 (2003): 21.

Dauber, Cori. "Debate as Empowerment." Argumentation and Advocacy 25, no. 4 (1989): 205-7.

"Debate Programs Get $20 Million Boost on Campuses Worldwide." Open Society Foundations, September 14, 2011.

Duncan, Arne. "The Power of Debate-Building the Five "C's" for the 21st Century." The Power of Debate-Building the Five "C's" for the 21st Century | U.S. Department of Education. April 12, 2012. Arne Duncan, Obama Administration Education Secretary

Dybvig, K., and J. Iverson. "Can cutting cards carve into our personal lives: an analysis of debate research on personal advocacy." IDEA (2000).

Fayvinova, Dasha. "20 Reasons Debate Club Kids Make the Best Adults." Bustle. December 22, 2017.

Fine, Gary Alan. "Games and truths: Learning to construct social problems in high school debate." The Sociological Quarterly 41, no. 1 (2000): 103-123.

Fine, Gary Alan. Gifted tongues: High school debate and adolescent culture. Princeton University Press, 2010.,+G.+A.+(2001).+Gifted+Tongues:+High+School+Debate+and+Adolescent+Culture.+Princeton,+NJ:+Princeton+University.+&ots=yGFRmrmYRM&sig=ilfRtmtf2PzOWnPhnYb5mQggpEk#v=onepage&q=Fine%2C%20G.%20A.%20(2001).%20Gifted%20Tongues%3A%20High%20School%20Debate%20and%20Adolescent%20Culture.%20Princeton%2C%20NJ%3A%20Princeton%20University.&f=false

Follert, Vincent F., and Kent R. Colbert. "An Analysis of the Research Concerning Debate Training and Critical Thinking Improvements." (1983).

Foster, David E. "In Defense of the Argument Culture: A Response to Recent Criticisms Against the Use of Adversarial Debate as a Method of Societal Decision-Making." Forensic89, no. 1 (2004).

Frana, Adrian W. "Information Processing in High School Debate: A Superior Emphasis." (1985).

Freeley, Austin J. "An anthology of commentary on debate." The Speech Teacher (1960): 121-126.

Furgerson, Jessica L. "I need help finding it: Understanding the benefits of research skill acquisition in competitive forensics." Speaker & Gavel 49, no. 2 (2012): 5.

Gahagan, Kayla. "Debate helps students, but not every school values it equally." Rapid City Journal. January 10, 2015.

Garnett, Donald Travis. "A critical look at high school debate." PhD diss., Texas Tech University, 1964.

Glanton, Dahleen. "Urban schools argue in favor of debate teams." Chicago Tribune (2005).

Greene, Ronald Walter, and Darrin Hicks. "Lost convictions: Debating both sides and the ethical self-fashioning of liberal citizens." Cultural Studies19, no. 1 (2005): 100-126.  and

Greenstreet, Robert. "Academic Debate and Critical Thinking: A Look at the Evidence." (1992).

Greenstreet, Robert. "Academic Debate and Critical Thinking: A Look at the Evidence." National Forensics Journal 11 (1993): 13-28.

Godley, Rebecca. "Let's Debate, Why Debate?" ISSOS International Limited. February 10, 2017.

Gurney, Kyra. "Last fall, they debated gun control in class. Now, they debate lawmakers on TV." Miamiherald. February 23, 2018.  

Gymburch, Dave. "Speech and Debate Club Emphasizes Value of Researching Topics, Presenting Positions." Rome Sentinel. February 27, 2017.!UvvnzSONF45lOBmaKHKaTg/.

Harrigan, Casey. "A Defense of Switch Side Debate." Wakespace. May 2008.  Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Wake Forest University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in the Department of Communication on May 2008, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Herbst, Susan. "Change Through Debate." Inside Higher Ed. October 5, 2009. Susan Herbst is chief academic officer for the University System of Georgia and professor of public policy at Georgia Institute of Technology.

Herman, Hannah. "8 Things Competitive Debate Taught Me That College Didn't." Thought Catalog. November 07, 2013. Hannah Herman is a writer and competitive debater in the WUDC format.

Hill, Bill. "Intercollegiate debate: Why do students bother?" Southern Speech Communication Journal 48, no. 1 (1982): 77-88.

Hill, Bill. "The Educational Goals of CEDA: Clarification and Reformulation." The Forensic of Pi Kappa Delta 73 (1987): 17-27.

Hill, Bill. "The value of competitive debate as a vehicle for promoting development of critical thinking ability." Contemporary Argumentation & Debate 14 (1993): 1-22. 

Hill, Bill. "The value of competitive debate as a vehicle for promoting development of critical thinking ability." Perspectives in Controversy: Selected Essays from Contemporary Argumentation and Debate (2002): 47-70.

Hobbs, Jeffrey Dale, and Robert C. Chandler. "The perceived benefits of policy debate training in various professions." Speaker and Gavel 28, no. 6 (1990).

Hobbs, Jeffrey, Jodee Hobbs, Jeffrey Bile, Sue Lowrie, Amanda Wilkins, Virginia Milstead, and Kristina Wallace. "Intercollegiate debate as invitational rhetoric: An offering." Contemporary Argumentation & Debate 21 (2000): 76-94.

Holmquist, Annie. "5 Reasons Schools Should Teach Debate to Students." Intellectual Takeout. August 15, 2016.

Holmquist, Annie. "5 Reasons Schools Should Teach Debate to Students." Education News. August 16, 2016.

Howell, William Smiley. "The effects of high school debating on critical thinking." (1943): 96-103.

Jones, Del. "Debating Skills Come in Handy in Business." USA Today (2004): 21.

Karagianis, Elizabeth, Ed. "Students on debate team learn to explain and persuade skillfully." MIT News. April 11, 2001.

Keller, Julia. "Arguably, the best." Tribunedigital-chicagotribune. May 21, 2003.

Kennedy, Ruth. "In-class debates: Fertile ground for active learning and the cultivation of critical thinking and oral communication skills." International Journal of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education 19, no. 2 (2007). PDF:

Levine, Mel. "College Graduates Aren't Ready for the Real World." The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 18, 2005.

Littlefield, Robert S. "An assessment of university administrators: Do they value competitive debate and individual events programs." National Forensic Journal 9, no. 2 (1991): 87-96.

Louden, Allan D., Ed. Navigating Opportunity: Policy Debate in the 21st Century. PDF. New York & Amsterdam: International Debate Education Association, 2010. Papers presented at the National Developmental Debate Conference, June 5–7, 2009 at Wake Forest University; Allan D. Louden, conference director.

Luong, Minh A. "Forensics and college admissions." Rostrum 75, no. 3 (2000): 5-6. and

Matlon, Ronald J., and Lucy M. Keele. "A survey of participants in the national debate tournament, 1947–1980." Argumentation and Advocacy 20, no. 4 (1984): 194-205.

McCrady, Rusty. "Forensics, debate and the SAT." Rostrum 41 (2004): 44.

McMath, Allison Annette Boyer. Attitudes of Advanced Placement Teachers Toward Debate: Meeting the 21st Century Critical-Thinking Needs of Gifted Secondary Students. PhD diss., University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2016.

Mezuk, Briana. "Urban debate and high school educational outcomes for African American males: The case of the Chicago Debate League." The Journal of Negro Education (2009): 290-304.

Mezuk, Briana, Irina Bondarenko, Suzanne Smith, and Eric Tucker. "Impact of participating in a policy debate program on academic achievement: Evidence from the Chicago Urban Debate League." September 30, 2011. PDF:

Minch, Kevin, “The Value of Speech, Debate, and Theatre Activities: Making the Case for Forensics,” The Rostrum, Vol. 81, No. 4, December 2006

Minch, Kevin. The Value of Speech, Debate and Theatre Activities: Making the Case for Forensics. PDF. Indianapolis: National Federation of State High School Associations, 2006. and

Minch, Kevin. The Benefits of Debate Why Supporting High School Debate is a Worthwhile Project. PDF. Concord, CA:, July 30, 2016.  Also at "The Benefits of Debate: Why Supporting High School Debate is a Worthwhile Project." BrewBannerOriginal. July 30, 2016.

Minneapolis Public Schools. 2014-15 Urban Debate League MPS Evaluation. PDF. Minneapolis: Research, Evaluation and Assessment Minneapolis Public Schools, September 2015.

Mostert, Peter. "On the Value of Debate and Disagreement." The Philosophy Foundation. October 10, 2016.

Muir, Star A. "A defense of the ethics of contemporary debate." Philosophy & rhetoric (1993): 277-295.

Muir, Star A. "Policy Debate: A Superior Alternative." A Brochure provided by the Policy Caucus of the American Forensic Association.

Nasser, Suzanne. "Why Speech and Debate is Important for All Students." Great Homeschool Conventions. May 18, 2015.

Norton, Laurence E. "Nature and benefits of academic debate." Introduction to debate (1982): 24-40.

O'Donnell, Timothy. "'The Great Debaters': A Challenge to Higher Education." Inside Higher Ed. January 7, 2008. Timothy M. O’Donnell is chair of the National Debate Tournament Committee and director of debate at the University of Mary Washington, in Fredericksburg, Va.

O’Donnell, Timothy, Neil Butt, Joseph Bellon, Warren Decker, John Kastulas, William Keith, James Lyle, Danielle Verney O’Gorman, and Joseph Packer. "A Rationale for Intercollegiate Debate in the Twenty-first Century." Navigating Opportunity: Policy Debate in the 21st Century (2010): 27.

Open Society Institute-Balitomore. "More than just classroom sparring: Baltimore Urban Debate League gives youth the power of voice." Audacious Thinking, Summer 2011, 10-14. Summer 2011.

Panetta, Edward M. "A rationale for developing a nationally competitive National Debate Tournament oriented program." Argumentation and Advocacy 27, no. 2 (1990): 68-77.

Parcher, Jeffrey. "Evaluation Report Philodemic Debate Society Georgetown University." Georgetown Program Review. Accessed February 01, 2018.

Parcher, Jeffrey. "The value of debate." Adapted from Report of the Philodemic Debate Society, Georgetown University (1998).

Peters, Tammie L. "An investigation into the relationship between participation in competitive forensics and standardized test scores." Rostrum 84, no. 2 (2009): 37-51.

Reiss, Fern. "No arguments about debate's value." May 04, 2017.

Research on the CDL." Chicago Debate Commission. Accessed February 01, 2018.

Ross, Sherwood. "College debaters get head start on exec track." SignOn San Diego > Jobs -- College debaters get head start on exec track. June 3, 2002.

Rothenberg, Irene Fraser, and Joan S. Berman. "College debate and effective writing: An argument for debate in the public administration curriculum." Teaching Political Science 8, no. 1 (1980): 21-39.

Rubino, Debra. "How a Debate League Changes Young Lives." Open Society Foundations. July 29, 2011.

Selegzi, Noel. "Debate Matters." Voices, September 14, 2011.

Sellnow, Deanna D. "Justifying Forensic Programs to Administrators: An Experiential Education Opportunity." National Forensics Journal 11, no. 2 (1994): 1-14.

Semlak, William D., and Donald C. Shields. "The effect of debate training on students participating in the Bicentennial Youth Debates." Argumentation and Advocacy 13, no. 4 (1977): 192-196.

Shafik, Jasmeen. "5 Benefits of A Healthy Debate." Odyssey. March 27, 2017.

Sommercamp, Susan. "High Schools Need to Make Debate Class a Graduation Requirement." The Huffington Post. December 14, 2015.

Spiliadis, Pam. "60 Minutes Broadcast to Feature Baltimore Urban Debate League on Sunday, June 8." Open Society Foundations. June 08, 2003.

Spring, Sarah. "Debate is a Game: Engagement, Gamification, and Competitive Debate." Medium. July 25, 2013. Sarah Spring, Director of Policy Debate, University of Houston

Stanbrough, Raven Jones. "'i'm gone be'Black on both sides'": Examining the literacy practices and legacy learning within a sustaining urban debate community. Michigan State University, 2016.

Stannard, Matthew. "Deliberation, Democracy and Debate." The Underview. April 28, 2006.

"The Importance of Debate." Independent School Parent. March 1, 2016.

The Power of Debate." Stanford National Forensic Institute. 2018.

Tsank, Stephanie. "National Study Finds Debate Can Dramatically Increase Student Reading Skills." Youth Initiatives. May 13, 2004.

Van Ness, Raymond K., PhD. Debates: Benefits of Debates. PDF. Albany: University at Albany.

Why I Debate." Accessed February 01, 2018.

Why Speech & Debate." IMPACT THROUGH DEBATE. Accessed February 02, 2018.

Williams, David E., Brian R. McGee, and David S. Worth. "University student perceptions of the efficacy of debate participation: An empirical investigation." Argumentation and Advocacy 37, no. 4 (2001): 198-209.

  • Value of Debate Bibliography by Carrie Crenshaw PhD, Florida State Debate '87

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Women/Sexism in Debate: An Annotated Bibliography*

(Work in Progress)

Badballotblog [Web log post]. (n.d.). Retrieved from Jeff Hannan, speech and debate coach at Evanston Township HS, writes this blog about bad ballots received by his students and images of bad ballots sent into Blog tags include: sexism, racism, patriarchy, and rape culture. Anna Waters referenced the badballotblog in her article in the Washington Post about sexism in debate. [See Waters citation below.]

Blount, H. (2015, September 4). A Feminist Fatale [Australia]. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from Hannah Blount, debater for the Grammar-High Debate Team, writes this blog about her love for the debate community necessitating her to advance equality within a male-dominated activity. Detailing her experiences with sexism and patriarchal oppression, Blount’s blog tags include: sexism, patriarchy, rape culture, gender roles, LGBT, and intersectional feminism.  

Bruschke, J., & Johnson, A. (1994). An analysis of differences in success rates of male and female debaters. Argumentation and Advocacy, 30(3), 162-174.

Cho, S. (2017, July 13). Behind the Story: Debating sexism on a Kansas high school campus. Retrieved from

DebatersAgainstSexism. (2013, April 16). Retrieved November 14, 2017, from We were invited to speak at the 2013 NDCA Championships Award Assembly hosted at Montgomery Bell Academy in Nashville, Tennessee. The NDCA Executive Board had previously voted on a 9-0 decision to become a signatory to the Debaters Against Sexism pledge, which was signed during the assembly.

Dhillon, K., & Larson, A. (2011). Biological Sex as a Predictor of Competitive Success in Intercollegiate Forensics. National Forensic Journal, 29(2). Retrieved from Also at:

Fiebrantz, A. J. (2013). Gender disparity in debate: An analysis of dominant discourses in national parliamentary debate using symbolic interactionism (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Greenstreet, R. W. (1997). Women in Intercollegiate Forensics: Experiencing Otherness. National Forensic Journal, 15(1), 49–68. Retrieved from

Griffin, C., & Raider, H. (1992). Women in high school debate. In D. Thomas & J. Hart (Eds.). Advanced debate: Readings in theory, practice, & teaching (pp. 8-14). Lin­colnwood, IL:  National Textbook.

Hyde, C., & Kay, J. (2016, March 4). Are You Experienced: An Examination Of The Effects Of Experience Gaps On The Gender Balance Within Competitive Debating. Volume 13, 2015. Retrieved from

Jarzabek, M. G. J. (1996). The Double Standard in CEDA: A Feminist Perspective on Gender Stereotyping in Intercollegiate Debate. Retrieved from

Johnson, A., & Bruschke, J. (1993). A research agenda for the study of women in debate: a framework and preliminary analysis. Conference Proceedings — National Communication Association/American Forensic Association (Alta Conference on Argumentation), 55-60.

Jones, M. L., & Treadaway, G. (2000). A preliminary study of the relationships between social support, self-esteem, and perceptions of sexual harassment in intercollegiate debate. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 21, 33-52. Retrieved from

Kaufman, A., Xie, T., & Roberts, A. (2016, October 4). Fairness in High School Forensics Under Debate. Retrieved from

Le, S. (2013, May 20). As Longtime Coach Steps Down, Debate Culture Under Scrutiny. Retrieved from

Le, S. (2013, May 20). Debate Title IX Investigation Prompted By Sexual Assault. Retrieved from

Le, S. (2013, May 20). Debate Team Moves Forward Amidst Disagreements About Supervision and Policy. Retrieved from

Logue, B. (1986). CEDA: male/female participation levels-a research report. Contemporary Argumentation & Debate, 7, 64-75. Retrieved from

Manchester, B. B., & Friedley, S. A. (2003). Revisiting male/female participation and success in forensics: has time changed the playing field. National Forensic Journal, 21(2), 20-35. Retrieved from

Matz, I., & Bruschke, J. (2006). Gender inequity in debate, legal and business professions.  Contemporary Argumentation & Debate 27(19) 29-47. Retrieved from

Mazur, M. A. (2001). Women in parliamentary debate: an examination of women’s performance at the National Parliamentary Debate Association’s national tournament. Parliamentary Debate, 8, 31-36. Retrieved from

McDonald, K. M., and S. T. Partlow. 2003. “Guerilla Girls in Intercollegiate Debate: Testing the Liberal Model of the Public Sphere.” In Critical Problems in Argumentation, edited by C. A. Willard, 303–310. Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

McRee, N., & Cote, R. (2002). Does college debate inherit a lack of diversity from high school debate? Contemporary Argumentation & Debate 23(17) 28-44.

Meredith, R., Hezell, M., & Spera, C. (2013). Survey on Experiences of Misogyny and Sexism within Debating (Presentation) (p. 38). Retrieved from

Norton, M. 2014. “The Necessity of Feminism in Speech and Debate.” Champion Briefs, February 25.Retrieved from

NPR. (2016, September 26). Debating While Female: How Gender Affects Perceptions. Retrieved from Interview with Anna Waters, a former high school debater-turned-coach.

NSD Update. (2011, December 20). Gender Disparity in Debate [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Pickett, A., & Scott, J. (n.d.). He Said, She Said: Gender Issues in Lincoln Douglas Debate. Retrieved November 1, 2017, from

Pierson, E. (2013, December 14). Men Outspeak Women: Analysing the Gender Gap in Competitive Debate. Volume 11, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from

Poapst, J. (2015). “Women in Collegiate Policy Debate: Embracing the Opportunity to Break up the Good Ol' Boys Club.” Paper presented at the annual National Communication Association Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, November 19.

Poapst, J., & Harpeer, A. (2017). Reflections on the 2014 celebration of women in debate tournament at George Mason University. Argumentation and Advocacy, 53(2), 127-137. Retrieved from Jackie Poapst is an assistant director of Debate at George Mason University, and is pursuing her Ph.D. in Health Communication. Allison Harper is an assistant director of Debate at Samford University, and is pursuing her Ph.D. in Strategic Communication. Abstract: Given the number of intelligent, progressive individuals who claim to support making debate more inclusive, the slow progress toward making competitive policy debate a more welcoming and safer activity for women might be judged a collective failure. We ground our discussion in our experiences planning, promoting, and hosting the 2014 George Mason University Celebration of Women Tournament—a debate tournament organized by and for women debaters. Utilizing muted group and co-cultural communication theory, we examine the relationship between the debate community and initiatives to promote greater inclusion within the activity.

Reid-Brinkley, S. R. (2012). Ghetto kids gone good: race, representation, and authority in the scripting of inner-city youths in the urban debate league. Argumentation & Advocacy, 49, 77-99.

Rogers, J. E. (1997). A Community of Unequals: An Analysis of Dominant and Subdominant Culturally Linked Perceptions of Participation and Success within Intercollegiate Competitive Debate. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 18, 1-22.

Rogers, J. E., Rennels, A., Lockhart, C., McMillan, C., Soluade, A., & Ukabam, O. (2003). Interrogating the Myth of the" ISM": An Analysis of Dominant and Subdominant Culturally Linked Perceptions and Engendered Motivations for Continued Participation in Intercollegiate Competitive Debate. Forensic, 88(2). Retrieve from

Ronald, A. (2017, Winter). Women in Competitive Forensics. Retrieved from Also found at:

Rubin, D. (2017, August 24). Fight like a girl, debate like a girl [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Schwartz-DuPre, R. L. (2006). Women in debate: from virtual to material.  Contemporary Argumentation & Debate, 27, 106-120. Retrieved from

Schwartz-DuPre, R. L. (2008). Women’s Debate Institute.  Conference Papers — National Communication Association, 1.

Singh, L. (2016). Lavanya Singh - Girl Up. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from

Skarb, J. B. (2003). Everyone should be able to play: A quantitative analysis of female participation in intercollegiate debate (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fullerton).

Spera , C., Ní Mhaoileoin, N., & O'Dwyer, M. (2013, December 13). Debate Mode: A New Exploration of Gender in British Parliamentary Debating. Volume 11, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from

Stepp, P. (1991). Is CEDA Debate White Male Dominated?". CEDA National Tournament. Bellingham.

Stepp, P., Simerly, G., & Logue, B. (1994). Sexual harassment in CEDA debate. Argumentation and Advocacy, 31(1), 36-40.

Stepp, P. (1997). Can we make intercollegiate debate more diverse?  Argumentation & Advocacy, 33(4), 176.

Stepp, P. L., & Gardner, B. (2001). How well are we doing: has the sexual harassment policy in CEDA debate worked?  Contemporary Argumentation & Debate, 22, 22.

Stepp, P. L., and B. Gardner. 2001. “Ten Years of Demographics: Who Debates in America.” Argumentation and Advocacy 38 (2): 69–82. Retrieved from and

Stepp, P. L. (2001). Sexual harassment in communication extra‐curricular activities: Intercollegiate debate and individual events. Communication Education, 50(1), 34-50. doi:10.1080/03634520109379230

Szwapa, C. A. (1994). Sexual harassment and gender discrimination in NDT debate. Argumentation & Advocacy, 31(1), 41-44. Retrieved from Article excerpt: Sexual harassment in academic institutions has become increasingly prevalent. While the incidence may vary, scholars generally agree that at least 30% of college students will experience some form of sexual harassment (Dzeich & Weiner, 1984; Fitzgerald et al., 1988). Further, the incidence of harassment is not confined to any particular institutional setting. For example, Till (1980) indicated that sexual harassment plagues large and small universities, private schools, vocational schools and religious-affiliated schools alike. The ubiquity of sexual harassment behaviors in academia has prompted many colleges and universities to study harassment more rigorously. The debate community should also examine this issue. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey regarding sexual harassment among women in NDT debate. The survey provided both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the issue of sexual harassment. This essay is limited to a report of the quantitative data based on the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (Fitzgerald, et al., 1988).

Tartakovsky, D. (2016). Gender Disparities in Competitive High School Debate New Evidence from Comprehensive Tournament Results Data. Retrieved from

Tartakovsky, D. (2016, August 09). New Evidence on Gender Disparities in Competitive High School Lincoln-Douglas Debate. Retrieved November 16, 2017, from

Tartakovsky, D. (2017). Gender Differences in Reactions to Setbacks: Evidence from High School Debate Competitions. Retrieved from

Terkel, A. (2016, September 26). Not Just Hillary: Young Women In Debate Face Sexism, Double Standards. Retrieved from

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Timmons, A. (2017, May 17). Director of Debate Aaron Timmons responds to The Evergreen's "Sexism in Debate" story. Retrieved from

Timmons, C. (2017, May 17). Letter to the Editor: Cindi Timmons responds to The Evergreen's "Sexism in Debate" story. Retrieved from

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Waters, A. (2016, September 23). How could sexism hurt Clinton in the debates? These female high school debaters know. Retrieved from

Wilkins, A. M., and J. Hobbs. 1997. “A Feminist Critique of Intercollegiate Debate.” Contemporary Argumentation & Debate 18: 57–67.

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  • Women/Sexism in Debate Bibliography by Carrie Crenshaw PhD, Florida State Debate '87

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